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Mark Billadeau

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About Mark Billadeau

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  • Gender
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  • Location
    Middletown, MD
  • Interests
    science, working dogs, sheep

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  1. Try this resource http://afs.okstate.edu/breeds/
  2. For what it’s worth we have been using livestock dewormer (ivermectin) for heartworm preventative on for over 15years (over 15 different dogs) without adverse reactions. We ensure the doses are 2x-3x the effective minimum dose.
  3. All heartworm meds are in the same class of drugs, macrocyclic lactones (https://www.merckvetmanual.com/pharmacology/anthelmintics/macrocyclic-lactones), and can cause the same adverse reactions when given at too high a dose. All heartworm meds are safe when given at the recommended dose for heartworm prevention (even for dogs with two copies of the Mdr1 mutation).
  4. Were these cases where the dogs were given ivermectin in heartgard pills or livestock dewormer (liquid ivermectin)? Heartgard has safe doses of ivermectin for each weight range; livestock dewormer requires the owner to administer the correct dose for the dog’s weight. Overdosing ivermectin can cause seizures in any dog.
  5. This is from https://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/faqs Q: What heartworm prevention products can I use if my dog has the MDR1 mutation? A: All heartworm products labeled for dogs in the U.S. have been tested in dogs with the MDR1 mutation as required by the FDA and have been found to be safe. However, some of the combination flea+heartworm preventive products (those containing spinosad) should be used cautiously in dogs that are MDR1 mutant/normal because of a risk of serious drug-drug interactions.
  6. Here is an up-to-date request for consultation form from Cornell. The form has the current fees. This form must be submitted by a Vet with the radiographs. The word form can be edited to add the necessary information for the submission; it may be easier to provide this form electronically to your Vet than a printed copy. Request Form Consults 2019.docx
  7. Location of where the litter is housed is not the key for determining socialization of the litter. We looked at 2 litters (both bred for livestock work) when getting our first Border Collie; both litters were kept in buildings outside of the house. When we approached one litter, the entire litter and the dam backed up away from the pen door. When we approached the other litter the dam and all the pups came to us. It was immediately obvious which litter was being socialized.
  8. The argument stated (by others) for having an known affected dog tested was to help minimize sampling bias in the reported rates of the genotypes in the population. The breed distribution of genotypes for a causative mutation are useful; I don’t see the utility in accurately knowing the distribution of genotypes for non-causative genetic markers (like the current EAOD tests). How individuals and breed organizations use tests for causative mutations will/should be different than how marker tests are used. A more detailed discussion of the EAOD MARKER tests will be posted soon.
  9. I agree with this statement when the test is for the causative mutation of a disease. Marker tests are not for the causative mutation.
  10. Let’s be very clear about what these marker tell us. These markers are correlated with those dogs that did develop EAOD; we knew the EAOD status of the dogs and then measured the markers. Correlation does not equal causation; therefore, the genetic results of these these markers indicate risk of developing EAOD. The location of the mutation (region on a specific chromosome identified by several SNPs) has not moved. Additional studies have eliminated one or more proposed exact locations (or identities of genetic code) on the chromosome of the mutation. Reading about SNPs, where they are located along the full genetic sequence, and how they are used in genetic studies may help you better understand the ongoing EAOD research.
  11. None Somehow the original 3 markers were near perfectly predictive of EAOD (despite not being the causative mutation) while the 3 markers plus the new one will indicate significant risk of getting EAOD and it is not known if all dogs with the risk allele will develop EAOD.
  12. All heartworm preventatives (at the prescribed dose) are safe in dogs with this mutation regardless of breed according to WSU https://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/problem-drugs All heartworm preventatives are in the same class of drug (see the link above). Selamectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin (antaparasitic agents)- Similar to ivermectin, these drugs are safe in dogs with the mutation if used for heartworm prevention at the manufacturer’s recommended dose. Higher doses (generally 10-20 times higher than the heartworm prevention dose) have been documented to cause neurological toxicity in dogs with the MDR1 mutation.
  13. As far as I am aware no marker has been identified for cHD. I believe the general consensus is cHD is polygenic plus environmental factors.
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