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Mark Billadeau

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About Mark Billadeau

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  • Gender
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    Middletown, MD
  • Interests
    science, working dogs, sheep

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  1. Let’s be very clear about what these marker tell us. These markers are correlated with those dogs that did develop EAOD; we knew the EAOD status of the dogs and then measured the markers. Correlation does not equal causation; therefore, the genetic results of these these markers indicate risk of developing EAOD. The location of the mutation (region on a specific chromosome identified by several SNPs) has not moved. Additional studies have eliminated one or more proposed exact locations (or identities of genetic code) on the chromosome of the mutation. Reading about SNPs, where they are located along the full genetic sequence, and how they are used in genetic studies may help you better understand the ongoing EAOD research.
  2. None Somehow the original 3 markers were near perfectly predictive of EAOD (despite not being the causative mutation) while the 3 markers plus the new one will indicate significant risk of getting EAOD and it is not known if all dogs with the risk allele will develop EAOD.
  3. All heartworm preventatives (at the prescribed dose) are safe in dogs with this mutation regardless of breed according to WSU https://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/problem-drugs All heartworm preventatives are in the same class of drug (see the link above). Selamectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin (antaparasitic agents)- Similar to ivermectin, these drugs are safe in dogs with the mutation if used for heartworm prevention at the manufacturer’s recommended dose. Higher doses (generally 10-20 times higher than the heartworm prevention dose) have been documented to cause neurological toxicity in dogs with the MDR1 mutation.
  4. As far as I am aware no marker has been identified for cHD. I believe the general consensus is cHD is polygenic plus environmental factors.
  5. All of the researchers the ABCA has worked with (over the time frame I’ve been involved) have shared confidential information with the committees.
  6. You asked questions on test methodology, hearing controls, etc.; these are addressed in the methods and materials section of publications. how to use the test results is what you need to know; as Eileen stated we’re working on it. They have shared confidential details with which we will develop our recommendations. Do you really need to know all the other details you’re asking about?
  7. Some of your questions may be answered in the published EAOD study which included the univ of Finland group: Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies, 2012, https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002898
  8. I suggest you post this question in the general discussion forum as opposed to this “Forum for those engaged in training their border collies for livestock operations and ISDS-style trials.” Your question will get more visibility and responses there.
  9. We let the researchers complete their ongoing studies which are funded by the hef
  10. frequency rates are determined by the genetic results in the dogs tested 35% of the dogs tested were heterozygous for the risk variants
  11. The methods used to amplify specific DNA sequences is under patents and licensed to many manufacturers of dna tests the dna chips used to detect specific DNA sequences are manufactured by 2 or 3 companies and sold for used to other companies All a company will need is the DNA sequences and they will be able to develop a test using their preferred dna chip or dna testing technology question for you, were these rumors started by people who work at genoscoper or at least in the dna testing field or by those who like to postulate conspiracies?
  12. The US Supreme Court ruled genetic tests cannot be patented; which is why other companies besides Optigen now provide a test for CEA. This has been addressed by Eileen several times
  13. “It also seems that the influence of genes on the choice to own a dog is stronger in women than in men.” While the scientific publication likely does not claim genes cause dog ownership; the popular press summary of the study has statements implying the genes do control it.
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