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Mark Billadeau

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About Mark Billadeau

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    Bill Nye Wannabe

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    Middletown, MD
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    science, working dogs, sheep

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  1. Here is an up-to-date request for consultation form from Cornell. The form has the current fees. This form must be submitted by a Vet with the radiographs. The word form can be edited to add the necessary information for the submission; it may be easier to provide this form electronically to your Vet than a printed copy. Request Form Consults 2019.docx
  2. Location of where the litter is housed is not the key for determining socialization of the litter. We looked at 2 litters (both bred for livestock work) when getting our first Border Collie; both litters were kept in buildings outside of the house. When we approached one litter, the entire litter and the dam backed up away from the pen door. When we approached the other litter the dam and all the pups came to us. It was immediately obvious which litter was being socialized.
  3. The argument stated (by others) for having an known affected dog tested was to help minimize sampling bias in the reported rates of the genotypes in the population. The breed distribution of genotypes for a causative mutation are useful; I don’t see the utility in accurately knowing the distribution of genotypes for non-causative genetic markers (like the current EAOD tests). How individuals and breed organizations use tests for causative mutations will/should be different than how marker tests are used. A more detailed discussion of the EAOD MARKER tests will be posted soon.
  4. I agree with this statement when the test is for the causative mutation of a disease. Marker tests are not for the causative mutation.
  5. Let’s be very clear about what these marker tell us. These markers are correlated with those dogs that did develop EAOD; we knew the EAOD status of the dogs and then measured the markers. Correlation does not equal causation; therefore, the genetic results of these these markers indicate risk of developing EAOD. The location of the mutation (region on a specific chromosome identified by several SNPs) has not moved. Additional studies have eliminated one or more proposed exact locations (or identities of genetic code) on the chromosome of the mutation. Reading about SNPs, where they are located along the full genetic sequence, and how they are used in genetic studies may help you better understand the ongoing EAOD research.
  6. None Somehow the original 3 markers were near perfectly predictive of EAOD (despite not being the causative mutation) while the 3 markers plus the new one will indicate significant risk of getting EAOD and it is not known if all dogs with the risk allele will develop EAOD.
  7. All heartworm preventatives (at the prescribed dose) are safe in dogs with this mutation regardless of breed according to WSU https://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/problem-drugs All heartworm preventatives are in the same class of drug (see the link above). Selamectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin (antaparasitic agents)- Similar to ivermectin, these drugs are safe in dogs with the mutation if used for heartworm prevention at the manufacturer’s recommended dose. Higher doses (generally 10-20 times higher than the heartworm prevention dose) have been documented to cause neurological toxicity in dogs with the MDR1 mutation.
  8. As far as I am aware no marker has been identified for cHD. I believe the general consensus is cHD is polygenic plus environmental factors.
  9. All of the researchers the ABCA has worked with (over the time frame I’ve been involved) have shared confidential information with the committees.
  10. You asked questions on test methodology, hearing controls, etc.; these are addressed in the methods and materials section of publications. how to use the test results is what you need to know; as Eileen stated we’re working on it. They have shared confidential details with which we will develop our recommendations. Do you really need to know all the other details you’re asking about?
  11. Some of your questions may be answered in the published EAOD study which included the univ of Finland group: Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies, 2012, https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002898
  12. I suggest you post this question in the general discussion forum as opposed to this “Forum for those engaged in training their border collies for livestock operations and ISDS-style trials.” Your question will get more visibility and responses there.
  13. We let the researchers complete their ongoing studies which are funded by the hef
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