I called my BC off running livestock this weekend (goats). I've called her off the lure in lure coursing. I have called her off squirrels, rabbits, and deer that she was already in pursuit of. I have called her off dogs, cats, and twice (horrifyingly) a BEAR. I've called ALL of my dogs off things like cats and squirrels and ducks. INCLUDING a deaf dog, though I have to use either light or vibration to get her to look at me first (and she always, always, does).
My 15 week old will call out of rambunctious play with other dogs two hundred yards away from me and book it to me as fast as he can go, through anything (including over the top of other dogs....) HE will call off a running cat when he's chasing it. He is 15 weeks old. The only other things he nows are 'sit' and 'down'. The recall isn't even formal. It's just his name. To reiterate I call his name and he will come flying out of multiple dog wrestling play from 200 yards away to come to me as fast as his floppy little puppy legs can carry him.
The closest to negative thing to a negative consequence any of them have ever gotten for not recalling is putting the GSD-X back on a long line when he was a teenager and had more prey-drive than sense. That wasn't a punishment, he didn't recall to avoid going on it - he simply didn't get let off again until I decided I could trust him because I didn't want him to die.
Otherwise? If I call them something good happens 99% of the time. They get a treat, or some play, or some petting, or a bit of a praise in a happy voice, and more often than not they're released back for more of whatever rather than leashed - so the recall doesn't mean 'fun's over and we're going home'.
This is pretty easy stuff with the BC and BCX puppy. It also worked for the GSD/LGD Mix, the deaf boston terrier, and the beagle/chi/sheltie/thing. Coming to me gets you something good = they want to come = they WILL come and they will do it at speed. That? Is important. More important than just about anything there is, when it comes to safety. I NEVER want the dog reluctantly coming only to avoid something they don't like.
It's as if she's weighing in her mind whether she wants to risk being put in timeout as she slowly moseys on over towards me.
I don't want that. I want immediate, happy, fast, shot out of a canon, recall and the way to do that is to make danged sure they want to come. The way to make sure they want to come is by making it a GOOD thing for them, and the way to do that is with, yeah, rewarding. Every time.
I mean, yes, I will get up and go fetch a dog who isn't coming to me - but then I'll go back to working on building value into the act of getting their furry butts to me before I let them off again.